Patents

Our aim is to monitor the steady increase in the proportion of AI Patents over the years and their distribution across regions. 

  • Methodology: Indian patents pertaining to Artificial Intelligence (AI) are identified based on the presence of AI keywords in the patent documents. AI keywords are as articulated in the 2019 WIPO technology trends report.
  • Source of patents data: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) - Patentscope

Growth of AI Patents: 

  • Panel A in Fig. 1 presents the growth of the ratio of AI patents to total patents over time. (2011-2020)
  • A consistent increase in the proportion of AI patents is observed over the last few years, reflecting the pervasive impact of AI in technological innovation.

Distribution of AI patents across regions:

  • India has 4 patent filing offices - Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai, and the distribution of AI patents filed acorss these offices is presented in Panel B of Fig. 1
  • A major proportion of the AI patents have been filed in Chennai over the last few years.
  • If the 4 offices are assumed to be representative of patent activity in North / West / East / South India respectively, it can be hypothesised that AI Patent activity is the highest in South India. This heterogeneity in regional activity is consistent with the observed AI activity in other areas as well.

Fig. 1 Growth of AI Patents

Academic Research

Elsevier's SCOPUS is the world's largest database of peer-review articles with over 22,800 titles from more than 5,000 international publishers. Information on the article abstract, text, citations, and media mentions, amongst others, is available for articles across diverse fields of research

  • Methodology: Indian SCOPUS Artificial Intelligence (AI) research documents are identified according to the presence of 5 major keywords in either the abstract, title or keywords of the documents:
    • Artificial Intelligence (AI)
    • Machine Learning (ML)
    • Neural Networks (NN)
    • Natural Language Processing (NLP)
    • Computer Vision (CV)
  • Source of data: SCOPUS Database
Fig. 2 Growth of AI in SCOPUS Research Documents

Growth of AI in SCOPUS Research Documents:

  • Panel A in Fig. 2 presents the growth in the ratio of AI-related research to all forms of academic research over time (1996-2020).
  • A consistent increase in the proportion of AI-related research is observed over the last few years, reflecting the systematic growth and increasing pervasiveness of academic research in the field of AI.

Distribution of Major AI Keywords in SCOPUS Research Documents:

  • Panel C of Fig. 2 shows the distribution of the 5 major keywords (AL, ML, NN, NLP, CV) in SCOPUS research documents over time (1996-2020).
  • Until the last decade, "Neural Networks" was the most popular keyword in AI-related academic research. In the decade after, "Machine learning" has shown significant growth in popularity. 

GitHub Projects

GitHub is a website where developers upload, comment on, and download software code. While Patents and Research Documents reflect the activity in academia, GitHub projects reflect the participation of public enthusiasts on a broader platform.

  • Methodology: Indian GitHub projects pertaining to Artificial Intelligence (AI) are identified based on the presence of common AI keywords.
  • Source of data: GHTorrent dataset

Growth of AI projects on GitHub

  • Fig. 3 shows the trend with the proportion of AI projects to total projects in GitHub over time (2008-2018).
  • A consistent increase in the proportion of AI projects on GitHub is observed over the last few years, reflecting the pervasive influence of AI on the community of independent developers.
Fig. 3 Growth of AI Projects on GitHub

The AI Index is an initiative that focuses on monitoring the AI readiness and adoption patterns in India. This initiative is a work-in-progress and will be constantly evolving as we expand our data-sets and delve deeper into the world of AI.